Category Archive: Technology

What is a Computer Keyboard?

A computer keyboard, a common input device for many electronic machinery, is an integral part of our computing experience, whether we’re using a desktop computer or a laptop.

The keyboard, as per its definition, is a peripheral device that enables users to input text, numerical data, and commands into a computer or other electronic machinery. It’s one of the primary ways we interact with our computers, alongside the mouse.

The standard keyboard layout, called QWERTY, is named after the first six alphabetic keys on the top row of the character keys. Most keyboards today, from the Apple keyboards to Windows keyboards, adhere to this layout, though there are variations.

A physical keyboard, as opposed to virtual keyboards or on-screen keyboards, has individual keys, each representing an alphanumeric character or a function.

The keys on the keyboard are divided into several types:

  • Alphabetic keys
  • Number keys
  • Function keys
  • Navigation keys
  • Special keys

These are standard on most keyboards, whether they’re laptop keyboards or PC keyboards.

The unique keys that give keyboards their versatility are the function keys, modifier keys, and special characters. Function keys, labelled F1 through F12, have different uses depending on the operating system (OS) and the software being used.

Modifier keys, like the Shift key, Ctrl, or the Windows key on Windows keyboards (or Command keys on Apple keyboards), modify the function of other keys when pressed together.

An Indispensable Tool

A computer keyboard, whether it’s a standard keyboard, a wireless keyboard, or even a virtual keyboard, is a critical device that lets users communicate with their computers or other electronic machinery. It allows users to input text, control functions, and execute commands on their OS.

Whether you’re writing an email, playing a game, or entering data, the computer keyboard plays a significant role in our digital lives. As technology continues to evolve, it will be fascinating to see how the design and functionality of a computer keyboard can adapt to meet our changing needs.

The Indispensable Computer Keyboard

The keyboard remains one of the most essential components of a computer, facilitating efficient and effective interaction with the OS. Each key on the keyboard, from the alphabetic keys to the function keys, the multimedia keys, and the modifier keys, serves a specific purpose, contributing to the overall functionality of this indispensable device.

Evolution & Design

The design and layout of the computer keyboard has also evolved over time. While the standard keyboard still maintains the QWERTY layout, many keyboards today, from laptop keyboards to mechanical keyboards, come in different shapes and sizes to suit different needs and preferences.

For instance, a gaming keyboard can often include additional keys for game play, and might feature mechanical key switches for faster response times. Apple keyboards are known for their sleek design and keys, such as the Command keys, which are used similar to the way the Ctrl key is used on a Windows keyboard.

The wireless keyboard has also gained popularity, especially for use with desktop computer setups where cable management can be a challenge. These keyboards connect to the computer using a wireless connection, typically Bluetooth, and require a power source, usually batteries, to function.

The Keyboard: Past, Present, and Future

Computer keyboards have come a long way since their early days, and they will undoubtedly continue to evolve in response to changing technologies and user needs. From the standard wired keyboard to wireless and virtual keyboards, each offers unique advantages and features that cater to different users and situations.

As touchscreens and voice recognition technology become more prevalent, it’s possible that the role of the computer keyboard will shift, and we may see even more innovative keyboard designs and input methods in the future.

Ultimately, the computer keyboard will remain a vital component of our digital lives, enabling us to communicate and interact with the digital world efficiently and effectively.

Resurgence of the Mechanical Keyboard

Mechanical keyboards have seen a resurgence in popularity, particularly among gamers and typists.

These keyboards utilize physical, mechanical switches beneath each key to send the input to the computer, offering a more tactile feedback and a higher degree of durability compared to their membrane counterparts.

The Rise of the Virtual Keyboard

But physical keyboards aren’t the only option available. Virtual keyboards or on-screen keyboards are increasingly becoming a part of our digital lives, especially with the rise of touch-screen devices.

Virtual keyboards display a keyboard layout on a screen, allowing users to input text by touching the on-screen keys with a finger or stylus. These are particularly useful for handheld devices or in situations where a physical keyboard might be impractical or impossible to use.

Evolving Keyboard Preferences

As our interaction with computers and other electronic machinery continues to evolve, so too will our keyboards.

Whether you prefer the tactile feedback of a mechanical keyboard, the portability of a wireless keyboard, the sleek design of Apple keyboards, or the convenience of a virtual keyboard, there’s a keyboard out there to meet your needs.

The Keyboard: Different Types

A modern computer keyboard can come in a variety of types, such as:

  1. Mechanical keyboards
  2. Wireless keyboards
  3. Flexible keyboards

Mechanical keyboards use physical, mechanical key switches beneath each key to send input to the computer. These keyboards, including gaming keyboards which are often mechanical, are popular for their tactile feedback and durability.

Wireless keyboards, as the name implies, do not use a physical connection to the computer. Instead, they connect via a wireless connection, usually Bluetooth, and are popular for their portability and the freedom they offer from cables.

Flexible keyboards are made from soft materials like silicone that can be folded or rolled up. They’re durable, portable, and often waterproof, making them a good choice for travel or harsh environments.

Popularity of the Wireless Keyboard

It’s also worth mentioning the increasing popularity people using a wireless keyboard. A wireless keyboard operates without a physical connection to the computer, typically using a wireless connection like Bluetooth.

Wireless is particularly popular with desktop computer setups as they reduce the clutter of cables and allow for more flexible positioning. However, they do require a power source, usually batteries, to function.

The Gaming Keyboard and Its Features

Gaming keyboards are another type that caters to a specific audience. These keyboards often feature additional keys for game play, customizable backlighting, and often use mechanical key switches for faster response times.

The keys on a gaming keyboard are designed to withstand heavy use, and the mechanical key switches beneath each key provide excellent tactile feedback and a sense of precision that can make a difference in competitive gaming.

Unique Features of the Apple Keyboard

The Apple keyboard, for example, is renowned for their aesthetics and unique features. This keyboard often incorporates a minimalist design, with keys that provide satisfying tactile feedback without the loud clicks found on some mechanical keyboards.

Apple keyboards also feature unique keys like the Command keys, which are used similarly to the Control key on Windows keyboards, but provide additional functionality and shortcuts within the Apple operating system.

Flexibility of a Flexible Keyboard

Meanwhile, flexible keyboards are gaining popularity for their unique features. Made from soft materials like silicone, these keyboards can be rolled up or folded for easy transport, making them ideal for travel.

In addition, flexible keyboards are often resistant to spills and dust, ensuring they can withstand harsh conditions and accidents that might damage a traditional keyboard.

The On-screen Keyboard and Portable Devices

With the rise of portable devices like tablets and smartphones, on-screen keyboards have also become an integral part of our digital lives.

These virtual keyboards offer the convenience of a keyboard wherever you have your device. They can be resized, customized, and even switched to different language layouts as needed, providing a level of versatility that physical keyboards can’t match.

Keyboard Layouts

One of the most recognizable features of a computer keyboard is the keyboard layout, which refers to the arrangement of keys on the keyboard. The most common layout is the QWERTY layout, named after the first six alphabetic keys in the top row of character keys.

This layout was originally designed for typewriters in the late 19th century to minimize jamming but has persisted in modern computer keyboards due to familiarity.

Other keyboard layouts exist, such as the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard and the Colemak layout, which aim to improve typing speed and efficiency by placing the most commonly used keys in more accessible positions.

However, these alternative layouts have not gained widespread adoption.

Exploring the Types of Keys on A Keyboard

As we’ve discussed, a computer keyboard can come in various forms and styles, but they all have some core similarities in their components and how they function. Let’s delve deeper into the different types of keys found on keyboards.

Alphabetic keys are the most commonly used keys on a computer keyboard, and they represent the letters of the alphabet from A to Z. Character keys, on the other hand, include both alphabetic keys and other characters like punctuation marks, brackets, and special symbols. Most keyboards have between 47 and 52 character keys in total.

Modifier keys are another essential component of keyboards. They alter the function of other keys when pressed simultaneously. Examples of modifier keys include the Shift key, which is used to capitalize letters or access secondary characters on number keys; the Ctrl key, which is used in combination with other keys for various commands and shortcuts; and the Alt key, which is used similarly to the Ctrl key, but typically for alternative commands.

Specialized Keys and Their Functions

Computer keyboards also have specific keys for different purposes, such as multimedia keys and other function-specific keys.

Multimedia keys are designed to control audio and video playback, allowing users to play, pause, stop, and adjust the volume directly from the keyboard. These keys are often found on laptop keyboards and some desktop keyboards, providing quick access to multimedia functions without requiring users to open a separate application.

Another example of specialized keys is the Escape key, which is typically used to cancel or close a process, such as closing a dialog box or exiting full-screen mode in a video player.

The Backspace key is used to delete characters to the left of the cursor, while the Delete key removes characters to the right of the cursor. These keys are essential for editing and managing text input.

The Command Key on An Apple Keyboard

On Apple keyboards, the Command keys serve a similar function. Pressing the Command keys in conjunction with other keys triggers various commands and shortcuts, enhancing the user’s interaction with the OS.

Exploring Underutilized Keys

A keyboard isn’t just about alphanumeric keys and functions. There are other keys, often underutilized, that can significantly enhance productivity.

For instance, the Windows key, present on most Windows keyboards, provides quick access to the Start Menu and various shortcut combinations in Microsoft Windows. Pressing this key in combination with other keys can trigger specific commands, making navigation easier and faster.

Lock Keys and Numeric Keypad

  • Caps Lock is one of the lock keys, another category of keys present on the computer keyboard. When the Caps Lock key is active, it allows the user to type capital letters without needing to hold down the Shift key.
  • The Num Lock key, on the other hand, switches the function of a certain section of the keyboard, the numeric keypad, between its two modes: numeric mode and navigation mode.
  • The numeric keypad, found on the right side of many keyboards, allows for quick input of numerical data. It’s especially useful in jobs that require heavy data entry. In numeric mode, the keys represent numbers from 0 to 9 and mathematical symbols like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. In navigation mode, some of these keys serve as additional arrows keys, Home, End, Page Up, and Page Down keys.
  • Then we have special keys like the Windows key on Windows keyboards, enabling quick access to the Start Menu and other shortcut combinations in Microsoft Windows.
  • The escape key, often labeled as ‘Esc’ key, is used to trigger the cancel function in many software programs. The backspace button, another special key, is used to delete the character to the left of the cursor in text input.

The Role of the Caps Lock Key

The Caps Lock key is another significant feature on computer keyboards. The Caps Lock key, when activated, changes the output of the alphabetic keys to capital letters.

This feature is particularly helpful when one needs to type an extended sequence of capital letters, eliminating the need to hold down the Shift key continually.

The Numeric Keypad and Its Importance

The importance of the numeric keypad is highlighted in jobs requiring a substantial amount of numerical data input, such as in accounting and data analysis fields.

When the Num Lock key is activated, the numeric mode is enabled, allowing users to use the numeric keypad as a calculator.

The keys on the numeric keypad represent numbers 0-9 and mathematical symbols such as addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), and division (/).

However, when the Num Lock is deactivated, the keys take on the function of navigation keys like arrows, Home, End, Page Up, and Page Down.

Additional Functionality

Today’s keyboards also include additional keys for enhanced functionality. Multimedia keys allow users to control video or audio content directly from the keyboard, while other keys might provide shortcuts to email, browser, or other frequently used software. Many keyboards, like Apple keyboards and Windows keyboards, also have unique keys specific to their operating system, which provide quick access to certain features.

Regardless of the type of computer keyboard you use, whether it’s a traditional keyboard or a virtual keyboard, each has a specific role in our interaction with computers and other electronic machinery.

Virtual keyboards or on-screen keyboards, for instance, are software-based keyboards that display a keyboard layout on a screen. These can be used with a mouse, a touch screen, or other input devices. They’re especially useful for handheld devices, for people with physical disabilities, and in scenarios where a physical keyboard might be impractical.

Enhanced Functionality with Multimedia Keys

Today, many keyboards come with additional keys that offer enhanced functionality. Multimedia keys, for instance, allow users to control video or audio content directly from the keyboard.

Some keyboards also include shortcut keys to frequently used software such as email clients or web browsers. These additional keys increase the keyboard’s functionality, making it more than just an input device.

Adapting A Keyboard to User Needs

Keyboards have evolved to accommodate the needs of different users, industries, and environments. For example, membrane keyboards are designed with pressure-sensitive keys that don’t require a mechanical switch. They are more affordable and quieter than mechanical keyboards but tend to have a less tactile feel and shorter lifespan.

In contrast, mechanical keyboards use individual mechanical switches for each key, providing a more tactile and responsive typing experience.

These keyboards are popular among gamers, programmers, and writers who value the typing experience and durability. A mechanical keyboard can also be customized with different key switches, keycaps, and backlighting to suit individual preferences.

Enhancing User Experience with A Keyboard

The evolution of computer keyboards has indeed been a fascinating journey, one that highlights the intersection of technology and user comfort.

Today, keyboards aren’t just about inputting text or numerical data into computers or other electronic machinery; they’re about providing an enhanced user experience.

We often overlook the key features that make a keyboard user-friendly. For instance, the presence of the numeric keypad is crucial for efficient data entry.

A numeric keypad, typically found on the right side of the keyboard, is a cluster of number keys and mathematical symbols. This layout is similar to that of a traditional calculator, making it easier for users to input numerical data swiftly.


Despite the evolution of input methods, such as voice recognition and touch screens, the keyboard remains the primary input device for most computer users. Its design has withstood the test of time, from the original typewriter-inspired layout to the QWERTY layout we use today.

Whether you’re typing an email, programming code, writing a novel, or playing a game, the keyboard is a tool that bridges the gap between user and machine, transforming thoughts into digital actions.

As technology advances, keyboards will continue to evolve to meet the changing needs of users. We may see more wireless and virtual keyboards, new key layouts, more customizable keys, and keyboards designed to work seamlessly with new technologies like virtual reality and augmented reality.

In conclusion, the computer keyboard, in all its forms, is more than just an input device. It’s a crucial element of our interaction with the digital world, a testament to human ingenuity, and a tool that will continue to shape our digital lives for years to come.

What Is A Printer?

A printer is a machine that produces a permanent representation of text or graphics on paper or other materials. Bar code printers are an example of printers that have expanded use beyond human-readable output. There are various types of printers available, including 3D printers, inkjet printers, laser printers, and thermal printers.

The first printer designed for a computer was created by Charles Babbage in the 19th century, although it was not built until 2000. The first patented printing mechanism for applying ink to a receiving medium was created in 1962 by C.R. Winston of Teletype Corporation. The first compact digital printer was the EP-101, invented by Epson and released in 1968.

Commercial printers initially used mechanisms from electric typewriters and Teletype machines. As demand for higher speed increased, new systems were developed specifically for computer use, such as daisy wheel systems, line printers, and dot-matrix systems. The introduction of the low-cost laser printer in 1984, along with the addition of PostScript in the following year’s Apple LaserWriter, revolutionized printing and led to the rise of desktop publishing.

By the 1990s, simple printing tasks such as fliers and brochures were commonly created on personal computers and laser printed. Inkjet systems rapidly displaced dot-matrix and daisy-wheel printers from the market. With the rapid improvement of internet email, printing became less necessary for document transmission, and reliable storage systems made physical backup less beneficial.

In recent years, 3D printing has become an area of intense interest, with the most common process being Fused deposition modeling. Cheap 3D printer kits have made 3D printing a widespread hobby as of the 2020s.

Types Of Personal Printers

There are different types of personal printers available in the market to suit various needs. Some of the most common ones are:

  • Inkjet printers: These printers are affordable and popular among home users and small businesses. They work by using ink cartridges to print images and text onto paper. They can print in either color or black and white.
  • Laser printers: These printers are known for their speed and high-quality text printing. They work by using toner cartridges to print onto paper and are best suited for printing large volumes of black and white documents.
  • All-in-one printers: These printers are designed to offer multiple functionalities such as printing, scanning, copying, and sometimes faxing capabilities all in one device. They can be either inkjet or laser printers.
  • Portable printers: These printers are compact and easy to transport. They are ideal for printing documents and photos while on the go and can connect to mobile devices via Wi-Fi or Bluetooth.
  • Photo printers: These printers are designed specifically for printing high-quality images. They use special ink and paper to produce vivid, long-lasting prints.
  • Three-dimensional printers: These printers use a process called additive fabrication to create objects from digital designs. They are typically used for prototyping, product development, and small-scale manufacturing.

Modern Printing Technology

Printers have come a long way since their inception, with several printing technologies available in the market today, each with its unique features and benefits. Below are some of the most commonly used printing technologies:

  • Toner-based printers: These printers produce high-quality text and graphics quickly. They work by using a laser beam to scan the printer’s photoreceptor, producing an electrostatic image that attracts toner particles.
  • Liquid inkjet printers: These printers propel tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper to create text and images. They are the most widely used printers by consumers.
  • Solid ink printers: These printers use solid ink materials, such as crayons or pearls, that are melted and fed into a print-head to produce high-quality prints. They are known for their excellent results on non-porous media like transparencies.
  • Dye-sublimation printers: These printers use heat to transfer dye onto a medium, such as paper or canvas, producing high-quality, vibrant prints.
  • Thermal printers: These printers selectively heat regions of heat-sensitive paper to create monochrome prints. They are commonly used in cash registers, ATMs, and gasoline dispensers.

Choosing the right printing technology depends on your specific requirements. Whether you need high-quality text and graphics, vibrant color prints, or quick and simple monochrome prints, there is a printer available that can meet your needs.

Printer Attributes

Printers have a range of features that cater to different user needs. Some of the most notable attributes include:

  • Connectivity: Printers can connect to computers using dedicated data cables like USB or wireless options such as Bluetooth, Ethernet, or WiFi. Some printers even function independently by supporting memory cards or other portable storage devices. Despite more than half of all printers sold in the US in 2010 having wireless capabilities, most consumers did not use this feature.
  • Printer Control Languages: Most printers accept control characters or unique character sequences to manage various printer functions. In the past, printer controls lacked standardization. However, most printers now support one or more page description languages (PDLs) such as Printer Command Language (PCL) or PostScript.
  • Printing Speed: The speed of printers is measured in pages per minute (ppm), which usually apply to A4 paper in most countries and letter paper size in North America.
  • Printing Mode: Printers can process four types of data: string of characters, bitmapped image, vector image, or a computer program written in a page description language.
  • Monochrome, Color, and Photo Printers: Monochrome printers produce only monochrome images, whereas color printers produce images of multiple colors. A photo printer is a color printer that can mimic the color range and resolution of photographic film.
  • Page Yield: The page yield is the number of pages that can be printed from a toner or ink cartridge before it needs to be refilled.
  • Printer Steganography: Printer steganography is a technique that adds tiny yellow dots to each page. This contains printer serial numbers, date, and time stamps.


Printers are machines used for producing a permanent representation of text or graphics on various materials. They come in different types and selecting the right printing technology depends on the needed quality.

In addition, printers offer several features to cater to different user needs. The printing technology has evolved significantly over time, offering unique features and benefits to users.

Analog Computers

Analog computers are a form of computing that utilizes the continuous variation aspect of physical phenomena to model the problem being solved. In contrast, digital computers use discrete values of both time and amplitude to represent varying quantities.

The complexity of analog computers varies from simple slide rules and nomograms to intricate naval gunfire control computers and large hybrid digital/analog computers. Analog computation is used in complex mechanisms for process control and protective relays to perform control and protective functions.

With digital computers beginning to make waves in the 1950s and 1960s, analog computers started to become out of date.

However, they continued to be used in specific applications such as aircraft flight simulators, flight computers, and for teaching control systems in universities.

Mechanical watches provide a relatable example of analog computing, where the periodic rotation of interlinked gears drives the seconds, minutes, and hours needles in the clock.

More intricate applications, such as aircraft flight simulators and synthetic-aperture radar, continued to be powered by analog computing (and hybrid computing) well into the 1980s, as digital computers were not sufficient for these tasks.

Timeline of Analog Computers


Analog computers have a long history dating back to ancient times when mechanical aids were constructed for astronomical and navigation purposes. The planisphere and astrolabe were early examples of analog computing that could solve problems in spherical astronomy.

The sector, a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry, and multiplication and division, was developed in the late 16th century and found application in gunnery, surveying, and navigation.

The slide rule, a hand-operated analog computer for doing multiplication and division, was invented around 1620-1630.

Aviation is one of the few fields where slide rules are still used, particularly for solving time-distance problems in light aircraft. In the 19th century, mathematician and engineer Giovanni Plana devised a perpetual-calendar machine that could predict the perpetual calendar for every year from AD 0 to AD 4000, keeping track of leap years and varying day length.

Sir William Thomson’s tide-predicting machine, invented in 1872, used a system of pulleys and wires to automatically calculate predicted tide levels for a set period at a particular location.

The differential analyzer, designed to solve differential equations by integration, used wheel-and-disc mechanisms to perform the integration. Mechanical differential analyzers were developed in the 1920s by Vannevar Bush and others. Similar systems followed, notably those of Spanish engineer Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, who built several machines for solving real and complex roots of polynomials.

The harmonic analyzer, developed by Michelson and Stratton, performed Fourier analysis using an array of 80 springs rather than Kelvin integrators. This work led to the mathematical understanding of the Gibbs phenomenon of overshoot in Fourier representation near discontinuities.

In a differential analyzer, the output of one integrator drove the input of the next integrator, or a graphing output. The torque amplifier was the advance that allowed these machines to work.

In summary, analog computers have a rich history that spans many centuries, with numerous inventors and mathematicians contributing to its development over time. From the planisphere and astrolabe to the slide rule and differential analyzer, these early forms of computing paved the way for modern-day analog and digital computers.

Modern Day

During the modern era, many different kinds of analog computers were used. The Dumaresq, invented by Lieutenant John Dumaresq of the Royal Navy in 1902, was an analog computer that related vital variables of the fire control problem to the movement of one’s own ship and that of a target ship.

In 1912, Arthur Pollen developed an electrically driven mechanical analog computer for fire-control systems, based on the differential analyzer. AC network analyzers were constructed starting in 1929 to solve calculation problems related to electrical power systems that were too large to solve with numerical methods at the time.

During World War II, mechanical analog computers were used in gun directors, gun data computers, and bomb sights. Helmut Hölzer built a fully electronic analog computer in 1942 as an embedded control system to calculate V-2 rocket trajectories and to stabilize and guide the missile.

In the Netherlands, Johan van Veen developed an analogue computer to calculate and predict tidal currents when the geometry of the channels are changed. In 1947, physicist Enrico Fermi invented the FERMIAC, an analog computer that aided in his studies of neutron transport. RCA developed Project Typhoon, an analog computer, in 1952, consisting of over 4,000 electron tubes and using 100 dials and 6,000 plug-in connectors to program.

Analog computers also played a significant role in educational settings, with devices like the Heathkit EC-1 and General Electric’s “educational” analog computer kit helping to illustrate the principles of analog calculation. In industrial process control, analog loop controllers were used to regulate temperature, flow, pressure, or other process conditions.

Analog computing continued to be used in scientific and industrial applications even after the advent of digital computers. They were often used in industrial settings to control and regulate manufacturing processes, while in scientific research, they were used to model complex physical systems. However, digital computers gradually replaced analog computers in most applications as they became more powerful and affordable.

Analog computing has experienced renewed interest in recent times, with a particular focus on neuromorphic computing. It has also found new applications in the field of machine learning.

It can model complex systems with high degrees of parallelism and non-linearity. Given these developments, analog computing continues to be a significant area of research.


In conclusion, analog computing is a form of computing that uses physical phenomena to model the problem being solved, utilizing continuous variation aspects. In contrast, digital computers use discrete values to represent varying quantities.

Analog computing has had a rich history, dating back to ancient times, with many inventors and mathematicians contributing to its development over time.

While digital computers have replaced analog computers in most applications, analog computing has seen a resurgence of interest in recent times, particularly in the field of neuromorphic computing and machine learning, where it has found new applications.

Computer Memory: An Overview

Computer memory is an irreplaceable element of a computer system, as it temporarily stores data and programs being utilized.

Without the assist of this handy little resource, computers wouldn’t be able to operate at their peak performance level – or even function properly.

By allowing quick access to the currently used data and applications, computer memory makes possible smooth computing processes that we’ve come to rely on in our everyday lives.

Different types of computer memory exist for different purposes and applications. The major partitions include: Types, Capacity, Architecture, and Management.

Each is integral to the operation of a successful system; from efficient storage with ample capacity to proper management built on an optimized architecture.

Types of Memory

The division of computer memory has two primary components: Types of Memory, which is further split into RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM (Read-Only Memory).

RAM, a type of volatile memory that holds data temporarily while your computer is running, comes in two forms: Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM).

SRAM doesn’t need to be replenished with energy continuously; this makes it faster and more dependable than DRAM. Comparatively speaking, though less expensive due to its requirement for constant power source refreshes, DRAM can’t beat the quick processing capacity or extended lifecycle offered by SRAM.

ROM, in comparison, is a type of non-volatile memory that preserves information permanently. It comes in many forms like Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM), Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM), and Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM).

Memory Capacity

When it comes to computer memory, there is Memory Capacity – the amount of data that can be stored. This capacity is measured in kilobytes (KB), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB) and terabytes (TB).

Thanks to technology advancements, we are now able to store far larger amounts of information than ever before!

Memory Architecture

Memory Architecture, the third key branch of computer memory, encompasses the physical structure in which memories are saved. Cache Memory, Main Memory, Secondary Memory and Virtual Memory all fall under this category.

Cache memory is a high-speed, short-term storage that can store data quickly due to its close proximity to the processor.

On the other hand, main memory (or Random Access Memory) acts as a computer system’s primary source for storing and executing current programs and data.

Secondary memory, also known as mass storage, is used to store data permanently. This type of memory is slower than main memory but has a much larger capacity.

Examples of secondary memory include hard disk drives (HDD), solid-state drives (SSD), and flash drives.

Virtual memory is a type of memory management that allows a computer to extend its main memory by temporarily transferring data to a hard disk.

This allows the computer to run larger programs than it would be able to with just main memory.

Memory Management

The last key component of computer memory is Memory Management, which refers to the management and control of the computers’ inner workings.

This element includes Memory Allocation, Memory Paging, as well as Segmentation – all providing a comprehensive system for effective functioning.

Allocating memory is a process of breaking the memory into distinct, manageable chunks and assigning them to applications when they are executed.

The two types of allocation available for this task include stack allocating for short-term data and heap allocator that works best with long-term storage requirements.

Memory paging is an optimal system of memory management which divides the RAM into segments known as pages.

This enables the operating system to better manage its resources, effortlessly transferring data between both main memory and disk when necessary.

Memory segmentation is an effective way of managing the memory by dividing it into distinct segments, each allocated to a certain program or data structure.

This provides not only better organization and optimization but also protection against accidental access violations.

To put it simply, computer memory is fundamental to a functioning system. There are various kinds of memory that each serve distinct roles and purposes.

Knowing the details behind Types of Memory, Memory Capacity, Memory Architecture, and Memory Management will help optimize your device’s performance in no time!

In summary: don’t underestimate just how important understanding computer memory really is.

What is a CPU?

Computers have been around for decades and have worked their way into almost every home, school, and business. Despite the prevalence of computer equipment, many people are still confused by some of the technical language and jargon that comes with the territory.

Computers consist of a variety of components, each of which performs an individual function to ensure the system works as a whole. One of these components is the CPU, which is an incredibly important part of any operating system.

Here we will outline exactly what a CPU is, what it does, and some examples of this vital piece of the computing puzzle. 

What does CPU stand for? 

Like many computing components, CPU is an acronym. CPU stands for Central Processing Unit but can also reference a main processor or any processor. 

What is a CPU? 

The CPU is essentially the computer’s brain and carries out instructions from the system software. It performs calculations, logic checks, controls, and input/output (I/O) operations that are communicated to it by the software. It is an internal component not usually exposed outside a computer device’s casing.

What is the CPU made from? 

The CPU consists of a silicon chip that is set into a special socket on the computer’s motherboard. These components contain billions of tiny transistors on the chip, enabling it to carry out the calculations and operations outlined above. As they turn on and off, they convey 1s and 0s to translate any electronic input into an operation. 

The CPU will largely determine the speed of the computer and its response to inputs. Over the years, the transistors on the chip have become smaller, resulting in increased speed. There is even an observed law that states that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every two years, known as Moore’s Law. 

However, not every CPU is constructed in the same way, as some CPUs are part of a System on Chip integration. 

What is System on Chip (SoC)?

In some devices, such as mobile and tablet computers, the CPU is embedded into a chip alongside other components. This is known as a System on Chip (SoC) approach, which can package the CPU alongside the GPU and memory

What is the difference between a CPU and a GPU?

We just mentioned a GPU, which may also have left you scratching your head. GPU stands for Graphics Processing Unit and is similar to the CPU but specifically designed to process graphics-related tasks. This can be things like displaying visuals on a screen, rendering 3D images, and more. In addition, the CPU and GPU will generally work together to offer even faster computer processing speeds. 

As well as a separate and dedicated GPU component, there is also the option for integrated graphics. Integrated graphics means that the GPU and CPU are built into the same chip, which can be efficient for some users but less effective for heavy graphics-based tasks such as video editing, gaming, and design. 

What does a CPU do? 

We have touched on the basic function of a CPU briefly already, but here we will break down its function in more detail. 

The CPU will generally receive, interpret and carry out commands. The commands are received from the RAM (Random Access Memory), and the CPU then interprets this command.

This command may need to be resolved through some simple mathematics or basic functions. The language of computer systems is numbers, so the CPU can be considered an extremely rapid calculator. This command may launch a piece of software, display an image on the screen or carry out a calculation on a spreadsheet. These steps are commonly referred to as fetch, decode and execute. 

The CPU can also assign tasks to other, more specialized components of the computer system. If you need to display a visual from a video game, for example, the CPU will assign this task to the GPU. 

CPU cores

Early CPUs made use of a single processing core, although modern CPUs made use of multiple cores. Having more than one core allows the CPU to carry out many actions at once, increasing the system’s speed and response times. 

Clock Speed

When looking at CPUs, you may encounter a clock speed specification. This number is presented in the unit of gigahertz (GHz). Essentially, this number determines how many instructions a CPU can carry out every second. Generally, a higher clock speed will denote a faster processor. 

History of CPUs

So now you have a basic idea of what a CPU is and what it is, but what is the component’s origin? 

The term has been used since 1955, with the first devices that could be referred to as CPUs emerging in the 1940s. 

However, CPUs, as we know them today, first came to light through the Intel 4004. This was the world’s first microprocessor with a CPU on a single chip. It was released in March 1971 and was incredibly important for the drastic advancement of computer systems over the next few decades. 


All you need to remember is that a CPU is the component of the computer that fetches inputs, decodes the instructions, and then executes the command. These commands can be distributed to more specialized hardware, such as the GPU. Many types of CPUs have different speeds, constructions, and sizes. They are used in various devices, from mobile phones to computers.